Physics
  • Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects.

  • Problems that involve constant speed and average speed. 

  • Forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; an object continues to move at constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).

  • Apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).

  • One object exerts force on a second, second object exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).

  • Relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.

  • Applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).

  • Circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.  Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.

  • Solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.

  • Resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components.

  • Calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.

  • Solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).

  • Problems in circular motion by using the formula for 2 centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v/r. Forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).

  • Conservation of Energy and Momentum

  • The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the movement of objects.

  • How to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E = (1/2) mv^2.

  • Calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).

  • How to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.

  • How to calculate momentum as the product mv.

  • Momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.

  • Unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.

  • Elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.

  • Conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs. 

  • Heat and Thermodynamics

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many processes’ energy is transferred to the environment as heat.

  • Heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.

  • Work done by a heat engine is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into the engine at high temperature and heat flow out at a lower temperature (first law of thermodynamics) an example of the law of conservation of energy.

  • Internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object’s atoms and molecules, referred to as thermal energy. Greater the temperature of the object, greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.

  • Processes tend to decrease the order of a system over time and that energy levels are eventually distributed uniformly.

  • Entropy is a quantity measures the order or disorder of a system and that this quantity is larger for a more disordered system.

  • Statement “Entropy tends to increase” is a law of statistical probability governs all closed systems (second law of thermodynamics).

  • Heat flow, work, and efficiency in a heat engine and know that all real engines lose some heat to their surroundings.

  • Waves

  • Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave.

  • Waves carry energy from one place to another.

  • Identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).

  • Solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

  • Sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the proper ties of the medium in which it propagates.

  • Radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 300,000 km/s (186,000 miles/second).

  • Identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.

  • Electric and Magnetic Phenomena

  • Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications.

  • Predict the voltage or current in simple direct current electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors.

  • How to solve problems involving Ohm’s law.

  • Any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation) in any resistive circuit element by using the formula Power = IR (potential difference)  I (current) = I^2R.

  • Properties of transistors and the role of transistors in electric circuits.

  • Charged particles are sources of electric fields and are subject to the forces of the electric fields from other charges.

  • Magnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other sources.

  • Direction of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire or in a coil.

  • Changing magnetic fields produce electric fields, thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.

  • Plasmas, the fourth state of matter, contain ions or free electrons or both and conduct electricity.

  • Electric and magnetic fields contain energy and act as vector force fields.

  • Force on a charged particle in an electric field is qE, E is the electric field at the position of the particle and q is its charge.

  • Calculate the electric field resulting from a point charge.

  • Magnitude of the force on a moving particle (with charge q) in a magnetic field is qvB sin(a), where a is the angle between v and B (v and B are the magnitudes of vectors v and B, respectively), and use the right-hand rule to find the direction of this force.

  • Apply the concepts of electrical and gravitational potential energy to solve problems involving conservation of energy.